Total Range of Motion in the Shoulder

Degree of freedom is defined as independent displacement and/or rotations that specify the
orientation of the body or system. There are merely 244 degrees of freedom in the throwing of a
baseball involving an infinite combination of muscle activation patterns. In normal language, this means
that mobility and range of motion in the body is critical when it comes to the pitching delivery.
The basic motions of the shoulder include flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, internal
rotation, external rotation, horizontal abduction and horizontal adduction. Bring the scapula into the
equation and you must add retraction, protraction, elevation, and depression. In recent years, there has
been increased discussion about the significance of the amount of internal rotation at the shoulder in
conjunction with scapular movement in relation to total range of motion.

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